Table of Contents


Motivation

I came across YourMorals.org when reading about Gwern’s personality, philosophy/morals, and political leanings; YourMorals.org welcomes newcomers with the following message1:

Welcome to YourMorals.org, where you can learn about your own morality, ethics, and/or values, moral values, ethical behaviors, personality, and political preferences while also contributing to scientific research. We are a group of professors, researchers, and graduate students in social psychology.

This site contains the following surveys:

Survey Title Description
Moral Foundations Questionnaire-2 (MFQ-2) Why do you care about some virtues and issues more than others? This survey gives you a broad overview of your morals.
Big 5 Personality Scale How do you score on the 5 major aspects of personality?
Self and Others Scale What is your level of interconnectedness?
Activities Survey What do your choices of daily activities reveal about your politics?
Systems & Feelings Survey Which kind of understanding do you prefer?
Belief in a Just World Scale How just do you feel the world is?
Need for Cognition Scale What is your attitude toward mental work?
Disgust Scale What do you find disgusting and how does it relate to morality?
Free Will Scale What kinds of free will do you think we have, if any?
Interpersonal Reactivity Index How do you react, emotionally and behaviorally, to various interpersonal situations?
Satisfaction with Life Scale How happy are you these days?
Levenson Psychopathy Scale What is your approach to life, and other people?
Relationship Survey What is your “style” of relating in romantic/love relationships, and how does that relate to morality?
Sacredness Survey What would you do for a million dollars?
Social Dominance Orientation Scale What are your attitudes toward various groups in society?
Cognitive Style Measure What is your thinking style?
The RWA scale This scale measures one of the major traits in political psychology
Moral Foundations Questionnaire (old version) Moral Foundations Questionnaire (old version)
Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Answer questions about some of your habits and behaviors
Identity Scale Which traits are most central to your identity?
Beauty Scale Does natural, artistic, or moral beauty engage you?
Schwartz Values Scale Compare your values on 10 dimensions from hedonism to benevolence.
Balanced Inventory of Responding Answer questions about your behaviors and social tendencies
Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale Do you typically experience prosocial emotions?
Intellectual Humility Measure and Vignettes Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale
Moral Identity Scale What role does morality play in your self concept?
Ethics Position Questionnaire Are you a moral relativist or absolutist? Can the ends justify the means?
Need for Closure Scale How do you feel about getting things done or keeping options open?
Behavioral Inhibition and Attraction Scales How sensitive are you to positive and negative events?
Identification with Humanity Scale What groups are you most loyal to? Whom do you identify with most?
Media Diet Survey What are your favorite media types

I would like to learn about my personality, and about how these psychological surveys classify me relative to other people. I believe this exercise will be an interesting way to experience modern psychological studies; to get a better sense of the context, I would also like to read research which employs these surveys, and to reflect on what the other participants must have thought when they answered the questions.

  Below, I offer some information about each survey, but do not go into depth on their histories or epistemology. For each survey, I’ve decided to record my internal monologue2 for all questions. At some future point, I would like to repeat this task, at least for a few of the surveys, to see how my answers change and how my justifications - the internal monologue - changes as well. I may attempt to cover, at some later date, the issues and limitations of each of these surveys, along with how accurate they are, but for now am more interested in just answering their questions, recording my internal monologue, and seeing my results.

Moral Foundations Questionnaire-2 (MFQ-2)

Why do you care about some virtues and issues more than others?

Question Response Internal Monologue
1. Caring for people who have suffered is an important virtue. Describes me fairly well “Yes, generally speaking.”
2. It pains me when I see someone ignoring the needs of another human being. Describes me fairly well “It does pain me, depends on the situation though.”
3. I believe that everyone should be given the same quantity of resources in life. Does not describe me at all “No, not really. Same minimum, yes, but after that some people are better than others.”
4. I get upset when some people have a lot more money than others in my country. Describes me fairly well “Yes, this is frustrating. Resources wasted.”
5. I think people should be rewarded in proportion to what they contribute. Describes me fairly well “Generally speaking, yes. Of course, disabled, etc…”
6. I think obedience to parents is an important virtue. Moderately describes me “I want my children to be obedient, but also to point out when I am wrong.”
7. Everyone should defend their country, if called upon. Slightly describes me “Not really. Hopefully there will be enough aggressive people to volunteer. Sometimes it could make a difference though if everyone volunteers.”
8. Our society would have fewer problems if people had the same income. Slightly describes me “No, but again, depends. If this is UBI and everything is automated, that might be characteristic of a fewer-problem-society.”
9. I am empathetic toward those people who have suffered in their lives. Moderately describes me “I feel bad for them, but don’t feel tremendous emotional pain.”
10. We should all care for people who are in emotional pain.   “Depends on how much care.”
11. It makes me happy when people are recognized on their merits. Describes me fairly well “Tough to say what this means. I think broadcasting positive actions is generally good.”
12. It upsets me when people have no loyalty to their country. Slightly describes me “Not really, unless this no loyalty sentiment induces instability civilizationally.”
13. I feel good when I see cheaters get caught and punished. Slightly describes me “Sometimes yes, sometimes I don’t think it’s too bad.”
14. We all need to learn from our elders. Slightly describes me “Sometimes yes, but most people including elders, seem decently stupid.”
15. I think children should be taught to be loyal to their country. Does not describe me at all “No, not really. They should be taught about their country, and weight how good it is, but blind loyalty to it is probably off the mark.”
16. It upsets me when people use foul language like it is nothing. Does not describe me at all “I don’t care, but it does inform my perception of them.”
17. I believe chastity is an important virtue. Moderately describes me “I kind of agree. I believe I am more inclined to like a partner if they were chaste (not completely chaste).”
18. The effort a worker puts into a job ought to be reflected in the size of a raise they receive. Slightly describes me “No, effectiveness should be optimized for - correlation between effectiveness and effort?”
19. I think it is important for societies to cherish their traditional values. Moderately describes me “Depends on the traditional values. Presently, I would say that the traditional values are poor, so no, they should not cherish them, but generally, it might be a good heuristic if the traditions are good.”
20. I believe that one of the most important values to teach children is to have respect for authority. Does not describe me at all “No, really disagree. Little progresses if there is always an appeal to authority.”
21. I think having a strong leader is good for society. Slightly describes me “Depends on what is meant by strong. Also, leader vs. leader(s). One person as a leader is probably not enough.”
22. I believe it would be ideal if everyone in society wound up with roughly the same amount of money. Does not describe me at all “Depends on the society, but generally there are reasons why some people should have more or less than others.”
23. I feel that most traditions serve a valuable function in keeping society orderly Does not describe me at all “I would change that to ‘some traditions can serve’, so unchanged, not really.”
24. I believe the strength of a sports team comes from the loyalty of its members to each other. Slightly describes me “What is meant by strength? I agree that when people don’t have to question loyalty in a sports team, the sport team might be more fluid.”
25. Everyone should love their own community. Does not describe me at all “No, some people should not feed their community or make it grow. There are bad communities.”
26. Everyone should try to comfort people who are going through something hard. Slightly describes me “Not necessarily - some people comfort others better. In my case, my comforting usually produces negative outcomes.”
27. People should try to use natural medicines rather than chemically identical human-made ones Does not describe me at all “People should use what works.”
28. Everyone should feel proud when a person in their community wins in an international competition. Describes me fairly well “Okay, seems harmless as put.”
29. I admire people who keep their virginity until marriage. Slightly describes me “I think chastity is good, but not at this dosage.”
30. If I found out that an acquaintance had an unusual but harmless sexual fetish I would feel uneasy about them Does not describe me at all “Don’t care.”
31. I think people who are more hard-working should end up with more money. Moderately describes me “Again, more effect not necessarily the same as more effective, but if we are talking about equal effectiveness, then yes someone should be rewarded more.”
32. The world would be a better place if everyone made the same amount of money. Does not describe me at all “Again, depends on the world. If you took this world, and gave everyone the same amount of money, I don’t think it would be a better place.”
33. When people work together toward a common goal, they should share the rewards equally, even if some worked harder on it. Slightly describes me “After some minimum threshold, the outcomes should be not be share equally.”
34. In a fair society, those who work hard should live with higher standards of living. Describes me fairly well “Those who are effective should have their effectiveness sustained. Also, what is a fair society?”
35. I think the human body should be treated like a temple, housing something sacred within. Does not describe me at all “No, there is nothing sacred about it.”
36. I believe that compassion for those who are suffering is one of the most crucial virtues. Describes me fairly well “I think an incompassionate world would be a poor one.”

The scale you completed was the “Moral Foundations Questionnaire-2” developed by Mohammad Atari, Jonathan Haidt, Jesse Graham, and Morteza Dehghani at the University of Southern California, New York University, and the University of Utah.

The scale is a measure of your reliance on and endorsement of six moral concerns that seem to be found across cultures:

  1. Care
  2. Equality
  3. Proportionality
  4. Loyalty
  5. Authority
  6. Purity

The idea behind the scale is that human morality is the result of biological and cultural evolutionary processes that made human beings very sensitive to many different (and often competing) issues. Some of these issues are about treating other individuals well and not harming them (Care). Some issues are about equal distribution of resources in the society (Equality) and some concern fairness in terms of merit and deservingness (Proportionality). Other issues are about how to be a good member of a group (Loyalty), respect different kinds of authorities (Authority), or being mindful of contamination both physically and spiritually (Purity). Atari and colleagues (2021) have found that political liberals generally place a higher value on Care and Equality; they are very concerned about issues of harm, inequality, and exploitation. Political conservatives, on the other hand, generally score slightly lower on Care and Equality items. Proportionality is a less political foundation but seems to slightly more important for conservatives. The bigger difference between liberals and conservatives seems to be that conservatives score slightly higher on the Loyalty foundation, and much higher on the Authority and Purity foundations.

This difference seems to explain many of the most contentious issues in the culture war. For example, liberals support legalizing gay marriage (for social equality and being compassionate), whereas many conservatives are reluctant to change the nature of marriage and the traditional family structure, basic building blocks of society. Conservatives are more likely to favor practices that increase order and respect (e.g., spanking, mandatory pledge of allegiance), whereas liberals often oppose these practices as being violent or coercive. Conservatives tend to see fairness in merit and equality of opportunity, but liberals tend to consider equality of outcomes as fairness.

Survey Notes

  • Date: 02/25/2022
  • Start time: ~13:21 EST
  • End time: ~13:50 EST
  • Feelings: I felt inclined to offer longer explanations the more I kept writing. I also found that, after experiencing the initial response to the question mentally, I often tried to poke holes in my justifications. I felt many of the questions had vague terms that made it difficult to decide which option to choose. Note (03/03/2022): I find myself playing devil’s advocate with my own answers when copying in the questions and my answers.

Results

My general Moral Foundations measures

…relative to overall average

…relative to age

…relative to education

…relative to sex

…relative to political orientation

…relative to religious orientation

Big 5 Personality Scale

How do you score on the 5 major aspects of personality?

Question Response Internal Monologue
1. is talkative Agree “I talk a lot but not too much.”
2. does a thorough job Neutral “There are usually some holes in my work.”
3. generates a lot of enthusiasm Agree Strongly “I am the enthusiasm generator in my friend group.”
4. likes to reflect, play with ideas Agree Strongly “I feel I do this all days.”
5. can be cold and aloof Neutral “Friends and family members have perceived me as callous on some occasions.”
6. tends to find fault with others Neutral “I am easygoing, typically, but can form harsh but inconsequential judgements of others.”
7. does things efficiently Neutral “I hope so and try to, but probably miss the mark often.”
8. is curious about many different things Agree Strongly “Extremely.”
9. perseveres until the task is done Neutral “Sometimes, but the task may also be a bottomless pit. I’d say strong neutral.”
10. gets nervous easily Agree “I do get anxious often, usually with work.”
11. is relaxed, handles stress well Disagree “I usually fail to cope with the stress well (don’t sleep, exercise, etc…)”
12. is original, comes up with new ideas Agree “I hope so, and think so. My Metaculus questions, notes, and posts lend me credence.”
13. tends to be quiet Neutral “If I am not with people, I will usually not reach out to them. I can, and sometimes do, go without talking in social situations. I am pretty shy in many ways.”
14. is reserved Agree “See last thought.”
15. tends to be disorganized Agree “Desk and home area are usually a mess, but not a terrible mess. I have occasions of strong cleansing.”
16. is inventive Agree “I spend a lot of time solving problems, but I don’t know if this falls into the category of inventive; I would say, generally, yes.”
17. is sometimes rude to others Neutral “I am sometimes rude to others but, most often, I am not.”
18. remains calm in tense situations Neutral “I usually freeze up in tense situations, but am not that calm. I don’t react strongly to things.”
19. worries a lot Agree Strongly “Yeah, I do worry a lot.”
20. has a forgiving nature Agree “I think I forgive people too readily. Most negative past interactions don’t seem to weigh in much on my future interactions. “
21. can be moody Neutral “My mood fluctuates, but not enough for me to describe it as ‘moody’”
22. is ingenious, a deep thinker Agree “I hope so. I think others would describe me this way. Putting Agree in the case that I am wrong with Agree Strongly.”
23. is considerate and kind to almost everyone Neutral “Yes, but not all of the time. I don’t usually get angry or snap at people, but I sometimes don’t support them emotionally.”
24. is emotionally stable, not easily upset Agree “I don’t react too strongly to things. I don’t know if it is emotionally stable or some mental malfunction though.”
25. is full of energy Agree “I feel that, generally, I have a low metabolism. I do have energy when talking about the things that interest me though, usually more energy than many other people I have seen.”
26. is depressed, blue Neutral “I can get very down, but when I am with my partner, I near really get too sad. It is a fine line though.”
27. is easily distracted Agree “I never feel that I am actually focusing on something.”
28. is outgoing, sociable Neutral “I will try to network with people sometimes, but it usually takes me awhile to recharge this ability.”
29. is a reliable worker Disagree “Reliability is not gurenteed.”
30. tends to be lazy Agree “I am pretty lazy, at least in the eyes of my family members. There is a lot of psychomotor retardation.”
31. has an active imagination Agree Strongly “I hope so, but think so, generally. It goes many places.”
32. makes plans and follows through with them Neutral “I make plans, so +1, but I don’t always follow through with them.”
33. values artistic, aesthetic experiences Agree “I used to more, but now I am more neutral to this. I still value creativity and expression decently so.”
34. is sometimes shy, inhibited Agree “Yes, with emphasis on inhibited.”
35. is sophisticated in art, music, or literature Disagree “My activities are more usually separate from these fields directly, except maybe art.”
36. is generally trusting Agree “Too trusting I would say, but I have been working on this.”
37. has few artistic interests Disagree “NST, TSP art, collages, etc…”
38. is helpful and unselfish with others Neutral “Family usually describes me as selfish, and I wouldn’t say they are that incorrect, but I am generally helpful.”
39. has an assertive personality Neutral “I am domineering in some manners, but in most I am more flexible and adaptive.”
40. starts quarrels with others Disagree “Indirectly, I’d say, but overall I don’t go out and begin an argument.”
41. likes to cooperate with others Agree Strongly “I love cooperation.”
42. can be somewhat careless Agree “Yes, I easily forget about most others’ wants and desires.”
43. prefers work that is routine Agree “I do enjoy routines.”
44. can be tense Agree “I can be tense, rigid, unmoving, etc… in certain situations.”

The scale you completed was the “Big 5 Personality Inventory,” created by Oliver John at the University of California at Berkeley. This particular scale is a “short form” of a much longer scale originally developed by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae in the 1980s.

The scale is a measure of five personality traits, which are sometimes said to be the “master traits” of human personality:

  1. Openness to experience: High scorers are described as “Open to new experiences. You have broad interests and are very imaginative.” Low scorers are described as “Down-to-earth, practical, traditional, and pretty much set in your ways.” This is the sub-scale that shows the strongest relationship to politics: liberals generally score high on this trait; they like change and variety, sometimes just for the sake of change and variety. Conservatives generally score lower on this trait. (Just think about the kinds of foods likely to be served at very liberal or very conservative social events.)
  2. Conscientiousness: High scorers are described as “conscientious and well organized. They have high standards and always strive to achieve their goals. They sometimes seem uptight. Low scorers are easy going, not very well organized and sometimes rather careless. They prefer not to make plans if they can help it.”
  3. Extraversion: High scorers are described as “Extraverted, outgoing, active, and high-spirited. You prefer to be around people most of the time.” Low scorers are described as “Introverted, reserved, and serious. You prefer to be alone or with a few close friends.” Extraverts are, on average, happier than introverts.
  4. Agreeableness: High scorers are described as “Compassionate, good-natured, and eager to cooperate and avoid conflict.” Low scorers are described as “Hardheaded, skeptical, proud, and competitive. You tend to express your anger directly.”
  5. Neuroticism: High scorers are described as “Sensitive, emotional, and prone to experience feelings that are upsetting.” Low scorers are described as “Secure, hardy, and generally relaxed even under stressful conditions.”

You can remember the traits using the acronym “OCEAN”.

The idea behind the scale is that underneath the hundreds of personality traits that psychologists have been measuring for over a hundred years, there are really just a few dimensions of variation. For example, there are many scales out there to measure depression, anxiety, self-consciousness, and other tendencies toward experiencing frequent negative emotions. But these scales all correlate with each other and are aspects of the Big 5 trait of Neuroticism. Psychologists in the 1960s first began to notice that the same “meta-traits” kept popping up in large studies. In the 1980s these five traits were given the names above, and this theory, the “five factor model” of personality, has become the most important model in personality psychology. It turns out that chimpanzees, dogs, pigs, and even squid can be reliably classified, based on their individual behaviors, on some or all of the five factors. Variation on these five factors seems to reflect some basic settings on which the brains of animals can vary, for example: being set for more or less social interactions (extraversion), or for more or less variety seeking (openness to experience).

For each trait, scores run from 1 (lowest possible score) to 5 (highest possible score).

Survey Notes

  • Date: 02/25/2021
  • Start time: ~14:02 EST
  • End time: ~14:28 EST
  • Notes: There were quite a few questions, and I nearly lost interest in finishing the survey. Recording my sentiments for each question is draining.

Results

My general OCEAN measures…

…relative to other age groups

…relative to education

…relative to sex

…relative to race

…relative to religious orientation

…relative to political orientation

Self and Others Scale

What is your level of interconnectedness?

Question Response Internal Monologue
1. One should live one’s life independently of others. Slightly Agree “There can be benefits depending on the person. Generally, I think a balance of networked connection and independence is best.”
2. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means. Moderately Agree “Depends on the relative. I would currently (and strongly) support my relatives, but it might not always be the case.”
3. We should keep our aging parents with us at home. Moderately Disagree “Depends on the situation (like if my care would outweight a professional’s) I would rather (strong preference) not have them with me though.”
4. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. Moderately Agree “In situations involving cognitive performance, I do experience some envy and might try to mobilize myself to perform better, but I don’t know if this qualifies as ‘tense and aroused’”
5. I would do what would please my family, even if I detested that activity. Moderately Disagree “My system is pretty good at preventing itself from doing things I don’t enjoy, even if they make other people happy.”
6. To me, pleasure is spending time with others. Moderately Disagree “No, pleasure is doing things, being excited, learning, etc…. These don’t necessarily have to occur with other people present, but oftentimes do occur around others.”
7. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. Slightly Agree “Depends on what the prize is and who the coworker is. Most of the time I won’t care. If my partner or friend got a prize, I might feel proud.”
8. Before taking a major trip, I consult with most members of my family and many friends. Slightly Agree “I don’t take many major trips. Whenever I’ve taken any trip, I have notified at least one member of my family and one friend.”
9. Without competition, it is not possible to have a good society. Moderately Disagree “I disagree. I can imagine a society of highly agreeable, uncompetitive people just getting along. In terms of well-being, I imagine there are many small agricultural communities with low-competition that get along (in both senses) just fine.”
10. Children should be taught to place duty before pleasure. Slightly Agree “I think that, for someone who has learned to place pleasure first, it is more difficult to update to a reality where duty is placed first, when compared to the opposite situation. Also, the term blind duty (in my mind, where someone neglects well-being for duty) makes me go from Moderately Agree to Slighty Agree.”
11. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. Moderately Agree “Even if I don’t get along with them, I would say it’s still important, as they are likely less likely to irritate or frustrate me when they are content than when they are discontent.”
12. I am a unique individual. Moderately Agree “I think every person is unique, biologically and culturally speaking. How unique are you? This is tough. I’d say, collectively, I am 2 standard deviations away on a lot of things, but don’t know.”
13. I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of the group. Slightly Disagree “This is tricky: sometimes I feel that I am behaving in manners just to appease others, and other (slightly more often) times I feel that, by letting up a little, the group would operate more smoothly.”
14. I would sacrifice an activity I enjoy very much if my family did not approve of it. Strongly Disagree “I am not going to let my family prevent me from doing something I enjoy a lot.”
15. My happiness depends very much on the happiness of those around me. Slightly Agree “I agree with this somewhat; when my partner or friends or family members are in sour moods, I find it difficult not to have some level of dullness enter my perspective. It’s not strong, but it is certainly there.”
16. When I succeed, it is usually because of my abilities. Slightly Agree “I believe I am a luck person. I also believe that my networking and mind skills are to blame for some of the opportunities and success I’ve experienced.”
17. I hate to disagree with others in my group. Slightly Disagree “This is something that really depends on the group and my mood. (somewhat): I think I like disagreement when I believe the other person’s claims are unsupported or bold, and dislike it when it could cause someone to be particularly angry with me. There are many factors that I have not thought about for this question. Nevertheless, I often find myself taking contrarian stances, likely as some automatic social-cognitive process.”
18. It is important to maintain harmony within my group. Moderately Agree “I do think maintaining group harmony is very important. Many things are nicer this way, even if there are occasional, light disagreements.”
19. I like my privacy. Strongly Agree “Definitely yes, I don’t want my actions recorded by other people, or used to understand my behavior very well.”
20. Some people emphasize winning; I’m not one of them. Moderately Agree “I try to hide my winnings in some ways. I do not know why. I kind of do not want others being envious or jealous, because I feel that their envy might someday be a threat.”
21. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do. Slightly Agree “People being more intelligent than me makes me generally makes me dislike myself. There is some of this self-disdain at my lack of success (on my measures) present when ‘people perform better than I do’, but generally I am grateful for what I have done.”
22. Winning is everything. Moderately Disagree “I don’t think so. Well-being and curiosity are everything. That’s statements rudimentary, but you get the point.”
23. I like sharing little things with my neighbors. Moderately Agree “I do like sharing. I think I do this to foster group-harmony and cooperation. I don’t know if this questions refer to ‘sharing little things’, or ‘little sharing of things’. I assume the former.”
24. I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people. Strongly Agree “I prefer clear and robust statements when communicating. Reducing misinterpretation and uncertainty are things that I optimize for, albeit my efforts are probably not as good as they could be.”
25. It is important that I do my job better than others. Moderately Disagree “I think that it is important that I do my job well, but it doesn’t have to be better than others for the sole sake of being better than others.”
26. I often do ‘my own thing’ Moderately Agree “My family would definitely say this of me. My friends too maybe. I think this statement applies to me on the basis of community sentiment.”
27. I feel good when I cooperate with others. Moderately Agree “I do feel good when communities are forged, and when cooperation produces something.”
28. I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others. Slightly Disagree “This depends on how well I perceive my abilities in the situation to be. When I think I have an edge, I want to compete, but when I don’t think I am very able, I want to learn and improve at the sidelines, without the nag of very-able-people over my head.”
29. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many ways. Slightly Agree “I am somewhat unique, and do enjoy being myself. I am not really sure what this question is trying to get at, but I will interpret it as how much do I agree with the type of thinking present in people who utter ‘I’m not like the other girls’”
30. Competition is the law of nature. Moderately Agree “I do think there is a level of competition in most things. I believe the question of who gets what applies to all life.”
31. Children should feel honored if their parents receive a distinguished award. Slightly Disagree “No, not really. The child likely wasn’t much help to the parent.”
32. What happens to me is my own doing. Slightly Disagree “There is also an error or noise term in life outcomes, but I’d like to think my efforts count for something.”

The scale you completed is the Individualism-Collectivism scale created by Singelis and colleagues (1995).

Even though the scale is given to individuals, the concepts of individualism and collectivism are used to describe entire cultures and they refer to the level of independence-interdependence among people in that culture. Individualist cultures tend to emphasize self-reliance, independence and (sometimes) competition. Individual needs take precedence over the needs of the group and the self is seen as a unique and separate entity. Collectivist cultures, on the other hand, tend to emphasize cooperation, and (sometimes) equality. Group needs take precedence over individual needs and the self is seen as a member of a group.

The idea behind the scale is to test whether people’s scores on the Individualism-Collectivism scale relate to other moral differences. It has been argued by some theorists (originally Carol Gilligan) that women have a more interdependent sense of self, and they feel their connections to others more strongly. We are also interested in how this trait may relate to politics. We suspect that there is no simple relationship between individualism-collectivism and liberalism-conservatism. There are ways of being an individualist liberal and of being an individualist conservative. We will also examine the relationship between scores on this test and scores on the Moral Foundations Questionnaire, which you probably took earlier, to see if those “five foundations of morality” reveal a more nuanced relationship between morality and individualism-collectivism.

Survey Notes

  • Date: 03/03/2022
  • Start time: ~12:11pm EST
  • End time: ~12:55pm EST
  • Feelings: It was irresistable not thinking more about my responses.

Results

My general Self and Others measures

…relative to age

…relative to education

…relative to sex

…relative to political orientation

…relative to religious orientation

Beauty Scale

Question Response Internal Monologue
1. When perceiving beauty in nature I feel something like a spiritual experience, perhaps a sense of oneness, or being united with the universe, or a love of the entire world. Agree Slightly “I feel a sense of harmony, everything is happening at once. It feels
sufficiently different from manmade spaces.”    
2. When perceiving beauty in nature I feel changes in my body, such as a lump in my throat, an expansion in my chest, faster heart beat, or other bodily responses. Agree “I feel a welcoming heightened alertness.”
3. When perceiving beauty in nature I feel emotional, it “moves me,” such as feeling a sense of awe, or wonder or excitement or admiration or upliftment. Agree Slightly “It depends on where and when I am. I feel excitement more during
Northeastern summers than during the winters.”    
4. I notice beauty in one or more aspects of nature. Agree Strongly “I believe there is an ingrained gracefulness to many natural phenomena.”
5. When perceiving beauty in a work of art I feel emotional, it “moves me,” such as feeling a sense of awe, or wonder or excitement or admiration or upliftment. Neutral “This occurs sometimes, but not as often as when I go into a beautiful natural space,
such as when I go fossil collecting.”    
6. I notice beauty in art or human made objects. Agree “I do notice the gracefulness of human art pieces.”
7. When perceiving beauty in a work of art I feel something like a spiritual experience, perhaps a sense of oneness, or being united with the universe, or a love of the entire world. Disagree “I do not feel any overwhelming wholeness when looking at human art - it is not encapsulating enough as Nature is.”
8. When perceiving beauty in a work of art I feel changes in my body, such as a lump in my throat, an expansion in my chest, faster heart beat, or other bodily responses. Neutral “Occasionally - some abstract art, Escher’s, and Klimpt’s works do this, but overall I have not experience a strong bodily reaction to human art.”
9. When perceiving an act of moral beauty I feel changes in my body, such as a lump in my throat, an expansion in my chest, faster heart beat, or other bodily responses. Agree “When a group of humans comes together and resists something I perceive as evil, or when humans coordinate to achieve something awesome, I feel connected to them and their cause.”
10. When perceiving an act of moral beauty I find that I desire to become a better person. Disagree Slightly “I don’t feel this desire too much; moreover, I want to contribute, to coordinate, to help.”
11. When perceiving an act of moral beauty I feel something like a spiritual experience, perhaps a sense of oneness, or being united with the universe, or a love of the entire world. Agree Slightly “I wouldn’t call it a spiritual beauty, but I do feel swept into the tide of human coordination.”
12. When perceiving an act of moral beauty I find that I desire to do good deeds and increase my service to others. Agree Slightly “I do think that my propensity to be altruistic with my physical actions (e.g., holding a door for someone or helping them carry a heavy object) increases slightly.”
13. When perceiving an act of moral beauty I feel emotional, it “moves me,” such as feeling a sense of awe, or wonder or excitement or admiration or upliftment. Agree “Uplift is a good word for this feeling, but it depends on the morally beautiful act.”
14. I notice moral beauty in human beings. Agree Slightly “I notice it sometimes. I don’t look for it too often though.”
15. When contemplating a beautiful idea I feel something like a spiritual experience, perhaps a sense of oneness or being united with the universe or a love of the entire world. Disagree Slightly “Many times, I don’t think of ideas as beautiful, but rather weigh their insight or effectiveness. An idea of something won’t ever really make me cry. There may be a bias here with regard to my comprehension of a “beautiful idea”. I interpret this to mean a “wonderful solution” or “key insight””
16. When contemplating a beautiful idea I feel emotional, it “moves me,” such as feeling a sense of awe or wonder or excitement or admiration or upliftment. Disagree Slightly “Ideas for me are not too emotionally moving. They can engender enthusiasm, but this is very different from what I feel when I enter a natural environment.”
17. When contemplating a beautiful idea I feel changes in my body, such as a lump in my throat, an expansion in my chest, faster heart beat, or other bodily responses. Neutral “My heartbeat might increase from excitement.”
18. I take notice of beautiful ideas. Agree “I think I do notice particularly graceful ideas.”

The scale you completed was the “Engagement with Beauty” scale, developed by Rhett Diessner at Lewis-Clark State College, in Idaho.

The scale is a measure of your reactions to three different kinds of beauty: natural, artistic, and moral. Moral beauty refers to any action that displays virtue – acts of love, courage, loyalty, or generosity, for example, often produce in observers a distinct pattern of physical feelings (often in the chest) and social motives (such as to copy the person who did the good deed). Haidt (2003) has called this feeling “moral elevation,” drawing on a description of the feeling from Thomas Jefferson.

The idea behind the scale is that philosophers and psychologists have long been intrigued by the connection between beauty and virtue. Are those who are more “sensitive” to beauty and ugliness in the physical world also more sensitive to beauty or ugliness in the social world? Immanuel Kant said “A direct interest in the beauty of nature is always a mark of a good soul.” Kant surely overstated things – Hitler seems to have been quite fond of the natural beauty of Germany. Nonetheless, Diessner has found that scores on the EBS do correlate with scores on measures of gratitude, spiritual transcendence, and happiness. Diessner created the EBS in part to investigate whether feelings of moral elevation (in response to moral beauty) are related to the feelings of spiritual uplift that many people report in response to viewing natural and artistic beauty.

The scale runs from 1 (lowest) to 7 (highest possible score).

Survey Notes

  • Date: 03/07/2022
  • Start time: ~3:48pm EST
  • End time: ~4:00pm EST
  • Feelings: Had a lot of caffeine and not much food in my system.

Results

My general Beauty Scale measures

…relative to overall average

…relative to age

…relative to education

…relative to sex

…relative to race

…relative to political orientation

…relative to religious orientation

Insights and Analyses

Page Epistemics

Status

[pending]

Certainty

[pending]

Importance

[pending]

Impact

[pending]

Notes

Cover Photo

The cover photo for this page was likely taken by yashowardhan singh. I found the photo on Unsplash. To my knowledge, my use of this photo is permissible under Unsplash’s license: “Unsplash grants you an irrevocable, nonexclusive, worldwide copyright license to download, copy, modify, distribute, perform, and use photos from Unsplash for free, including for commercial purposes, without permission from or attributing the photographer or Unsplash. This license does not include the right to compile photos from Unsplash to replicate a similar or competing service.

Footnotes

  1. The YourMorals.org’s welcome description and list of available surveys I included in this post I checked on 24 February 2022. Any changes on the site after this date I have not accounted for. 

  2. What typically comes to mind when I think about my “internal monologue” in the context of answering survey questions are the rather quick judgements or remembrances that bring me to choose one answer over the other.